Expand a set of irregularly sampled data points into spherical harmonics using a least squares inversion.

## Usage

`cilm`

, `chi2`

= SHExpandLSQ (`d`

, `lat`

, `lon`

, `lmax`

, [`norm`

, `csphase`

])

## Returns

`cilm`

: float, dimension (2,`lmax`

+1,`lmax`

+1)- The real spherical harmonic coefficients of the function. The coefficients
`C0lm`

and`C1lm`

refer to the cosine (`Clm`

) and sine (`Slm`

) coefficients, respectively, with`Clm=cilm[0,l,m]`

and`Slm=cilm[1,l,m]`

. `chi2`

: float- The residual sum of squares misfit for an overdetermined inversion.

## Parameters

`d`

: float, dimension (`nmax`

)- The value of the function at the coordinates (
`lat`

,`lon`

). `lat`

: float, dimension (`nmax`

)- The latitude in DEGREES corresponding to the value in
`d`

. `lon`

: float, dimension (`nmax`

)- The longitude in DEGREES corresponding to the value in
`d`

. `lmax`

: integer- The maximum spherical harmonic degree of the output coefficients
`cilm`

. `norm`

: optional, integer, default = 1- 1 (default) = Geodesy 4-pi normalized harmonics; 2 = Schmidt semi-normalized harmonics; 3 = unnormalized harmonics; 4 = orthonormal harmonics.
`csphase`

: optional, integer, default = 1- 1 (default) = do not apply the Condon-Shortley phase factor to the associated Legendre functions; -1 = append the Condon-Shortley phase factor of (-1)^m to the associated Legendre functions.

## Description

`SHExpandLSQ`

will expand a set of irregularly sampled data points into spherical harmonics by a least squares inversion. When the number of data points is greater or equal to the number of spherical harmonic coefficients (i.e., `nmax>=(lmax+1)**2`

), the solution of the overdetermined system will be determined. If there are more coefficients than data points, then the solution of the underdetermined system that minimizes the solution norm will be determined. The inversions are performed using the LAPACK routine DGELS.

The employed spherical harmonic normalization and Condon-Shortley phase convention can be set by the optional arguments `norm`

and `csphase`

; if not set, the default is to use geodesy 4-pi normalized harmonics that exclude the Condon-Shortley phase of (-1)^m.

## See also

makegriddh, shexpanddh, makegriddhc, shexpanddhc, makegridglq, shexpandglq, makegridglqc, shexpandglqc, dgels(1)

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